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BULLETIN

VOL. XXIII,

FOR

1903.

IE3 AET II.

GEORGE M. BOWERS, Commissioner.

Issued August 5, 1905.

WASHINGTON:

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

THE AQUATIC RESOURCES OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.

BY

DAVID STARR JORDAN

AND

BARTON W ARREN EVE R MANN.

II.

Section II.— THE DEEP-SEA FISHES.

By Charles Henry Gilbert.

Section III.— THE COMMERCIAL FISHERIES.

By John N. Cobb.

iii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

BLACK-AND-WHITE PLATES.

Facing page.

Plate 66. Etmopterus villosus Gilbert 580

Drawingby W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51588, U.S.N.M., a specimen 6.75 inches long, collected at station 3824, off the south coast of Molokai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 67. Stemonidium hypomelas Gilbert 586

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51550, U.S.N.M., a specimen 5.7 inches long, collected at station 4176, vicinity of Niihau Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 68, fig. 1. Diaphus adenomus Gilbert . 592

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51588, U.S.N.M., a specimen 6.2 inches long, collected at station 4106, in the KaiwL Channel between Oahu and Molokai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 68, fig. 2. Myctophum margaritatum Gilbert 592

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51536, U.S.N.M., a specimen 3.2 inches long, collected at station 3930, off the south coast of Molokai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 69, fig. 1. Centrobranchus chcerocephalus Fowler 594

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from a specimen 1.6 inches long, collected at station 3980, south of Oahu Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 69, fig. 2. Centrobranchus gracilicaudus Gilbert 594

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51518, U.S.N.M., a specimen 1.3 inches long, collected at station 4145, west of Niihau Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 70, fig. 1. Myctophum braueri Gilbert 598

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51527, U.S.N.M., a specimen 2.2 inches long, collected at station 3980, south of Oahu Island, by the Albatross in 1902. Myctophum lutkeni Gilbert on plate.

Plate 70, fig. 2. Myctophum evermanni Gilbert 598

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51521, U.S.N.M., a specimen 1.1 inches long, collected at station 3980, south of Oahu Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 71, fig. 1. Cyclo'.hone rhodadenia Gilbert . 602

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51584, U.S.N.M., a specimen 8.12 inches long, collected at station 4108, in Kaiwi Channel, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 71, fig. 2. Cyclothone canina Gilbert 602

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51545, U.S.N.M., a specimen 2.5 inches long, collected at station 4005, vicinity of Kauai Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 71, fig. 3. Astronesthes lucifer Gilbert 602

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51516, U.S.N.M., a specimen 2.8 inches long, collected at station 4026, vicinity of Kauai Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 72, fig. 1. Argyropelecus heathi Gilbert 606

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51632, U.S.N.M., a specimen 1.5 inches long, collected at station 4107, between Oahu and Molokai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 72, fig. 2. Cyclothone atraria Gilbert 606

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 52055, U.S.N.M., a specimen 2.13 inches long, collected at station 4187, vicinity of Kauai Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

VI

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION.

Facing page.

Plate 72, fig. 3. Leptostomias macronema Gilbert . . . : 606

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 52056, U.S.N.M., a specimen 2.8 inches long, collected at station 4177, vicinity of Niihau Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 73. Polyipnus nuttingi Gilbert 610

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51599, U.S.N.M., a specimen 3.3 inches long, collected at station 4088, Pailolo Channel, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 74. Halosauropsis kauaiensis Gilbert 612

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51612, U.S.N.M., a specimen 26 inches long, collected at station 4018, vicinity of Kauai Island, by the Albatross in 1902. Aldrovandia kauaiensis on plate.

Plate 75. Halosauropsis verticalis Gilbert 612

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51645, U.S.N.M., a specimen 10 inches long, collected at station 4141, vicinity of Kauai Island, by the Albatross in 1902. Aldrovandia verticalis on plate.

Plate 76. Halosauropsis proboscidea Gilbert 612

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51614, U.S.N.M., a specimen 17 inches long, collected at station 4111, between Molokai and Oahu islands, by the Albatross in 1902. Aldrovandia proboscidea on plate.

Plate 77, fig. 1. Melamphaes unicornis Gilbert 614

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51517, U.S.N.M., a specimen 1.38 inches long, collected at station 4142, in the vicinity of Kauai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 77, fig. 2. Chromis leucurus Gilbert 614

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51587, U.S.N.M., a specimen 3 inches long, collected at station 3875, in Avau Channel, between Maui and Lanai, by the Albat- ross in 1902.

Plate 78. Polymixia berndti Gilbert 616

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51607, U.S.N.M., a specimen 8 inches long, collected at Honolulu by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 79. Hynnodus atherinoides Gilbert 618

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51601, U.S.N.M., a specimen 4.7 inches long, collected at station 3867, Pailolo Channel, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 80, fig. 1. Antigonia eos Gilbert ' 622

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51593, U.S.N.M., a specimen 3.3 inches long, collected at station 4102, Pailolo Channel, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 80, fig. 2. Cyttomimus stelgis Gilbert 622

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51622, U.S.N.M., a specimen 3.65 inches long, collected at station 4122, off the south shore of Oahu, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 81. Taenianotus citrinellus Gilbert 636

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51634, U.S.N.M., a specimen 4 inches long, collected at station 3849, off the south coast of Molokai, by the Albatross in 1902. " ;

Plate 82. Bembradium roseum Gilbert 638

Drawing by C. B. Hudson from the type, No. 51617, U.S'.N.M., a specimen 3 inches long, collected at station 3859, Pailolo Channel, by the Albatross in 1902. Bembradium roseus on plate.

Plate 83. Neopercis roseoviridis Gilbert 642

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51650, U.S.N.M., a specimen 3 inches long, collected at station 4077, off the northeast coast of Maui, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 84. Bembrops filifera Gilbert 644

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51613, U.S.N.M., a specimen 9 inches long, collected at station 4080, off the northeast coast of Maui Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

VI I

Facing page.

Plate 85. Chrionema chryseres Gilbert 64 0

Drawing by C. B. Pludson from the type, No. 51655, U.S.N.M., a specimen 8 inches long, collected at station 3813, off the south coast of Oahu Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 86. Chrionema squamiceps Gilbert 646

Drawing by C. B. Hudson from the type, No. 51635, U.S.N.M., a specimen 2.5 inches long, collected at station 4098, off the north coast of Maui, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 87. Pteropsaron incisum Gilbert 646

Drawing by C. B. Hudson from the type, No. 51621, U.S.N.M., a specimen 2 inches long, collected at station 3957, off Laysan Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 88. Champsodon fimbriatus Gilbert 648

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51629, U.S.N.M., a specimen 4 inches long, collected at station 4101, Pailolo Channel, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 89. Callionymus caeruleonotatus Gilbert 648

Drawing by C. B. Hudson from the type, No. 51603, U.S.N.M., a specimen 3 inches long, collected at station 4066, off the east coast of Maui, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 90. Calliurichthys decoratus Gilbert 652

Drawing by C. B. Hudson from the type, No. 51609, U.S.N.M., a specimen 6 inches long, collected at station 4032, off the southern coast of Oahu, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 91. Draconetta hawaiiensis Gilbert 652

Drawing by C. B. Hudson from the type, No. 51633, U.S.N.M., a specimen 2 inches long, collected at station 4102, Pailolo Channel, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 92. Snyderidia canina Gilbert 656

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51646, U.S.N.M., a specimen 12.1 inches long, collected at station 3989, vicinity of Kauai Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 93. Hymenocephalus aterrimus Gilbert 666

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51649, U.S.N.M., a specimen 5 inches long, collected at station 3989, in the vicinity of Kauai Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 94. Ccelorhynchus doryssus Gilbert 676

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51616, U.S.N.M., a specimen 14 inches long, collected at station 4109, Kaiwi Channel, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 95. Pcecilopsetta hawaiiensis Gilbert 680

Drawing by Chloe LesleyStarks from the type, No. 51638, U.S.N.M., a specimen 5 inches long, collected at station 3858, Pailolo Channel, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 96. Samariscus corallinus Gilbert 682

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51596, U.S.N.M., a specimen 4.3 inches long, collected at station 3849, off the south coast of Molokai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 97. Anticitharus debilis Gilbert 684

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51657, U.S.N.M., a specimen 7 inches long, collected at station 4103, Pailolo Channel, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 98. Symphurus undatus Gilbert 690

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51619, U.S.N.M., a specimen 4.1 inches long, collected at station 4114, off the northwest coast of Oahu Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 99. Miopsaras myops Gilbert 694

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51637, U.S.N.M., a specimen 4.35 inches long, collected at station 4019, vicinity of Kauai Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 100. Malthopsis jordani Gilbert 696

Drawing by Sekko Shimada from the type, No. 51625, U.S.N.M., a specimen 3.3 inches long, collected at station 3853, off the south coast of Molokai, by the Albatross in 1902.

VIII BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION.

Facing page.

Plate 101. Halieutaea retifera Gilbert 696

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51597, U.S.N.M., a specimen 4 inches long, collected at station 4076, off the north coast of Maui, by the Albatross in 1902.

Plate 102, fig. 1. Native fisherman with dip net 711

Plate 102, fig. 2. Carrying fish in baskets 711

Plate 103, fig. 1. Papai (crab) dip nets 714

Plate 103, fig. 2. Double canoe returning from fishing 714

Plate 104, fig. 1. Puhi (eel) basket trap 726

Plate 104, fig. 2. Fish basket trap ' 726

Plate 105, fig. 1. Hee (squid) fishing with spear 728

Plate 105, fig. 2. Banana plantations, showing trenches in which gold-fish are raised 728

Plate 106, fig. 1. Interior fish pond, Waikiki, Oahu 740

Plate 106, fig. 2. Sluiceway leading into interior fish pond, Waikiki, Oahu 740

TEXT FIGURES.

Page.

Figure 230. Centroscyllium ruscosum Gilbert 580

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51585, U.S.N.M., a specimen 8.75 inches long, collected at station 3997, vicinity of Kauai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 231. Chimaera purpurescens Gilbert 582

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51694, U.S.N.M., a specimen 35.4 inches long, collected at station 4183, vicinity of Kauai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 232. Synaphobranchus brachysomus Gilbert 583

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51591, U.S.N.M., a specimen 28 inches long, collected at station 4019, vicinity of Kauai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 233. Metopomycter denticulatus Gilbert 585

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 52191, U.S.N.M., a specimen 30.5 inches long, collected at station 4019, vicinity of Kauai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 234. Nematoprora polygonifera Gilbert 587

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51589, U.S.N.M., a specimen 12.5 inches long, collected at station 4151, vicinity of Bird Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 235. Bathypterois antennatus Gilbert 590

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51640, U.S.N.M., a specimen 6.5 inches long, collected at station 4151, vicinity of Bird Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 236. Lestidium nudum Gilbert 608

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51615, U.S.N.M., a specimen 8 inches long, collected at station 3899, between Molokai and Maui islands, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 237. Macrorhamphosus hawaiiensis Gilbert 613

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51618, U.S.N.M., a specimen 1.65 inches long, collected at station 3940, near Laysan Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 238. Ichthyocampus erythraeus Gilbert 613

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51548, U.S.N.M., a specimen 2.06 inches long, collected at station 3847, off the south coast of Molokai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 239. Pegasus papilio Gilbert 614

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51549, U.S.N.M., a specimen 1.87 inches long, collected at station 4149, near Bird Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 240. Grammatonotus laysanus Gilbert , 619

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51546, U.S.N.M., a specimen 1.65 inches long, collected at station 3947, near Laysan Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. IX

Page.

Figure 241. Stethopristes eos Gilbert 623

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51626, U.S.N.M., a specimen 5.2 inches long, collected at station 3867, between Molokai and Maui islands, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 242. Aracana spilonota Gilbert 627

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51630, U.S.N.M., a specimen 3.8 inches long, collected at station 3939, vicinity of Laysan Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 243. Sebastapistes coloratus Gilbert 628

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51631, U.S.N.M., a specimen 3.1 inches long, collected at station 3849, off the south coast of Molokai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 244. Scorpaenopsis altirostris Gilbert 629

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51636, TJ.S.N.M., a specimen 2.5 inches long, collected at station 3849 off the south coast of Molokai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 245. Peloropsis xenops Gilbert - 631

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51604, TJ.S.N.M., a specimen 6.1 inches long, collected at station 3872, between Maui and Lanai islands, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 246. Helicolenus rufescens Gilbert 632

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51628, U.S.N.M., a specimen 4.2 inches long, collected at station 4133, vicinity of Kauai Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 247. Pontinus spilistius Gilbert 633

Drawing by R. L. Hudson, from the type, No. 51644, TJ.S.N.M., a specimen 3.6 inches long, collected at station 4077, off the north coast of Maui, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 248. Plectrogenium nanum Gilbert.. 635

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks, from the type, No. 51598, TJ.S.N.M., a specimen 3 inches long, collected at station 4082, off the north coast of Maui, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 249. Hoplichthys citrinus Gilbert 640

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks, from the type, No.' 51610, U.S.N.M. , a specimen 7 inches long, collected at station 3859, in Pailolo Channel, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 250. Hoplichthys platophrys Gilbert 642

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks, from the type, No. 51620, TJ.S.N.M., a specimen 2.9 inches long, collected at station 3952, near Laysan Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 251. Callionymus corallinus Gilbert 650

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks, from the type, No. 51581, TJ.S.N.M., a specimen 1.5 inches long, collected at station 3873, Avau Channel, between Maui and Lanai islands, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 252. Callionymus rubrovinctus Gilbert 651

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51580, TJ.S.N.M., a specimen 0.9 inch long, collected at station 3876, between Maui and Lanai islands, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 253. Ateleopus plicatellus Gilbert 654

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51586, TJ.S.N.M., a specimen 21 inches long, collected at station 3868, Pailolo Channel, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 254. Fierasfer microdon Gilbert 656

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51600, TJ.S.N.M., a specimen 3.9 inches long, collected at station 3872, between Maui and Lanai islands, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 255. Laemonema rhodochir Gilbert 657

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51623, TJ.S.N.M., a specimen 4.5 inches long, collected at station 3810, off the south coast of Oahu Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 256. Gadomus melanopterus Gilbert 658

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51606, TJ.S.N.M., a specimen 10.63 inches long, collected at station 4028, vicinity of Kauai Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION.

Page

Figure 257. Gadomus bowersi Gilbert 660

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51658, U.S.N.M., a specimen 18.5 inches long, collected at station 4151, vicinity of Bird Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 258. Melanobranchus micronema Gilbert 662

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51643, U.S.N.M., a specimen 9.25 inches long, collected at station 4094, between Maui and Molokai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 259. Hymenocephalus striatulus Gilbert 665

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51611, U.S.N.M., a specimen 5.5 inches long, collected at station 4122, off the southwest coast of Oahu, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 260. Macrourus burragei Gilbert 669

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51641, U.S.N.M., a specimen 10.5 inches long, collected at station 3917, off the south coast of Oahu Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 261. Macrourus obliquatus Gilbert 670

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51514, U.S.N.M., a specimen 5.15 inches long, collected at station 4141, off the east coast of Kauai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 262. Macrourus hebetatus Gilbert 671

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51608, U.S.N.M., a specimen 5 inches long, collected at station 3925, off the south coast of Oahu Island by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 263. Macrourus longicirrhus Gilbert 673

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51592, U.S.N.M., a specimen 23 inches long, collected at station 4185, vicinity of Kauai Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 264. Ccelorhynchus aratrum Gilbert 674

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51656, U.S.N.M., a specimen 12.35 inches long, collected at station 3910, off the south coast of Oahu Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 265. Malacocephalus hawaiiensis Gilbert 1 677

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51618, U.S.N.M., a specimen 14 inches long, collected at station 3907, off the south coast of Oahu, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 266. Tseniopsetta radula Gilbert 681

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51639, U.S.N.M., a specimen 4.5 inches long, collected at station 3858, between Molokai and Maui, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 267. Platophrys chlorospilus Gilbert 684

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51647, U.S.N.M., a specimen 7.2 inches long, collected at station 4074, off the north coast of Maui, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 268. Platophrys inermis Gilbert 685

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51648, U.S.N.M., a specimen 7.1 inches long, collected at station 4102, between Molokai and Maui, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 269. Piatophrys coarctatus Gilbert 686

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51602, U.S.N.M., a specimen 6.4 inches long, collected at station 3859, between Molokai and Maui, by the Albatross in. 1902.

Figure 270. Engyprosopon xenandrus Gilbert 688

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51651, U.S.N.M., a specimen 3.38 inches long, collected at station 3849, off the south coast of Molokai, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 271. Chascanopsetta prorigera Gilbert 689

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51605, U.S.N.M., a specimen 8.9 inches long, collected at station 4080, off the north coast of Maui, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 272. Symphurus strictus Gilbert 691

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Starks from the type, No. 51624, U.S.N.M., a specimen 4.2 inches long, collected at station 3920, off the south coast of Oahu Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XI

Figure 273. Lophiomus miacanthus Gilbert 692

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson from the type, No. 51627, U.S.N.M., a specimen 5.65 inches long, collected at station 4117, off the northwest coast of Oahu Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 274. Chaunax umbrinus Gilbert 693

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51547, U.S.N.M., a specimen 2.12 inches long, collected at station 3885, Pailolo Channel, between Maui and Molokai, by the Alba- tross in 1902.

Figure 275. Dibranchus erythrinus Gilbert 698

Drawing by Chloe Lesley Stacks from the type, No. 51642, U.S.N.M., a specimen 6.75 inches long, collected at station 3985, vicinity of Kaui Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 276. Dibranchus stellulatus Gilbert 699

Drawing by R. L. Hudson from the type, No. 51595, U.S.N.M., a specimen 2.75 inches long, collected at station 4080, off the north coast of Maui Island, by the Albatross in 1902.

Figure 277. Basket for catching opae (shrimp) 731

Figure 278. Bone hooks used in fishing 737

Figure 279. Tortoise-shell hook 738

Figure 280. Ivory hook 738

Figure 281. Deep-sea fishing line 739

Figure 282. Hook fnade from iron nail 740

Figure 283.' Cowrie hook with shell, for catching hee (squid) 740

Figure 284. Hooks used in catching turtle and squid 741

Figure 285. Hook with ivory barb and wooden shank 741

Figure 286. Wooden shark hooks with bone points 742

II. THE DEEP-SEA FISHES OF THE HAWAIIAN ISEANDS.

BY

CHARLES HENRY GILBERT, Ph. 1 X,

Professor of Zoology , Le land Stanford Junior University.

F. C. B. 1903, Ft. 2—1

575

II— THE DEEP-SEA FISHES OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.

By CHARGES HENRY GILBERT, Ph. D. Professor of Zoology , Leland Stanford Junior University.

The second season of investigations by the U. S. Fish Commission in the Hawaiian Islands— the period from March to August, 1902 was devoted primarily to the study of the fauna of the deeper waters. The work was conducted from the steamer Albatross , under the general supervision of Dr. David S. Jordan and Dr. Barton W. Evermann. The writer, as naturalist in charge, had immediate respon- sibility for the scientific conduct of the cruise, and was ably assisted by Prof. Charles C. Nutting, of the Univershy of Iowa, and by Mr. John O. Snyder and Mr. Walter K. Fisher, of Stanford University.

An exhaustive survey was attempted of all offshore fishing banks, and a thorough exploration of the channels between the islands and the deeper slopes out to the 1,000-fathom line. The region to be covered included the Hawaiian Islands proper, and the series of shoals and reefs, with infrequent rock islets, which form a continuation of the Hawaiian group to the northwest. The westernmost point to be reached was the island of Laysan. As thus outlined, the area to be explored comprised a narrow strip reaching from 18° to 26° north latitude and from 156° to 172° west longitude, and extending from southeast to northwest a distance of 1,300 miles.

The investigation proved extremely difficult on account of the nature of the sea bottom, which, at all depths, was such as to render dredging very arduous and uncertain. The configuration of the ocean floor was for the most part irregular, with steep slopes. Even in those localities of limited extent where the slopes were gentle and uniform, and were covered with fine sediments, the trawl was likely at any time to encounter masses of coral, or outcroppings of lava, or even in the deeper waters consolidated oozes, all of which worked disaster to the gear and prevented successful results. Of the 344 trials with tangles, dredge, or trawl, about one-third were total failures, and many of the others were nearly barren of results. The use of the trawl for commercial fishing is out of the question in any part of this region, with the possible exception of a small district lying off the harbor of Kahului, on the island of Maui, where there is a smooth sand bottom on which a commercial trawl could be safely worked. So far as known, however, there are no market fishes to be had there in abundance, and the region is too far from any center of population.

577

578

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION.

The most successful trawling grounds for scientific purposes were found between 200 and 400 fathoms along the seaward extensions of the Pailolo and Kaiwi Channels, which lie between Maui and Molokai and between Molokai and Oahu. Toward the northeast these channels soon open upon a nearly level plateau, 10 to 15 miles in width, carrying a depth of about 300 fathoms. The sediments are fine sand and mud, and are in certain lines comparatively free from obstructions. At the seaward edge of this plateau, however, foul bottom is at once encountered, and a steep and wholly impracticable slope leads abruptly down to oceanic depths. For depths of less than 200 fathoms the richest ground discovered was undoubtedly the inter-island portion of the Pailolo Channel, where a bottom of dead shells and corallines proved very productive. Off Kahului on Maui, as already stated, and off Honolulu and Waialua on Oahu, are gentle sandy slopes where dredging is possible out to 300 fathoms, but the inshore portions are comparatively barren. Beyond 400 fathoms no satisfactory working grounds could be found in any part of this region. The best that were dis- covered lie off the eastern shore of Kauai. Here life was abundant and the forms discovered were of extreme interest, but the bottom had a rapid seaward slope and was treacherous. By dredging parallel with the shore line, successful hauls were occasionally made, and most of our material from depths greater than. 400 fathoms came from this locality. The series of shoals to the northwest of the Hawaiian group were left practically unexplored. The single trip to Laysan Island was devoted largely to hydrographic work; hence a few dredge hauls in the vicinity of Laysan and a series near Bird Island represent the meager biological results obtained from the western portion of the cruise. No truly bathvbial fishes were secured at Laysan, but the reef species and those of the shore platform out to 100 fathoms indicated the unbroken extension of the Hawaiian fauna to include these islands and shoals.

The first contribution to the knowledge of Hawaiian deep-sea fishes appeared in 1897," being based on the results of 8 dredge-hauls taken by the Albatross in 1891, in the Kaiwi Channel. Of the 26 species then secured, all but 5 were described as new. The probability entertained at that time that the slopes about the islands would be found to contain an assemblage of species largely distinct from those of any other region has been fully borne out by more extensive exploration. In the present paper there are recorded 111 species living at depths of 100 fathoms or more, and of these all are peculiar to the Hawaiian province, so. far as is now known, except the 10 named below. Squalus mitsuJcurii , Cliimsem purpiorescens, and Antigonia stein- dachneri are known from Japan; Synodus Tcaianus and Nannohrachium nigrurn are forms occurring in the East Indies; Serrivomer beanii and Gaulolepis longidens are supposed to inhabit both coasts of the United States; Antimora microlepis is from the Pacific coast of North America; and Neoscopelus microlepidotus and Sternoptyx diaphana are species of partly pelagic habit, ranging widely in both Atlantic and Pacific. In the case of Squalus , Ohim.sera , and Antimora , it has "been possible to make direct comparison of specimens, but with the others mentioned, identification is based on comparison with published descriptions and figures only.

An analysis of the list of species recorded in the present paper shows conclusively that the bathybial fishes of Hawaii, like those of its reefs and shores, have been

a Gilbert, C. H., and Cramer, Frank: Report on the fishes dredged in deep water near the Hawaiian Islands, with' descriptions and figures of twenty-three new species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 19, 1897, pp. 403-435, plates 36-48.

FISHES OF HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.

579

derived as a whole from the west and south, and not from the east or north. In its entire facies, the fauna is strikingly unlike that of the Pacific coast of Mexico and Central America, and resembles strongly the assemblage of forms discovered by the Albatross and the Challenger off the coasts of Japan and the East Indies. Some of its members find their nearest known affines in the Bay of Bengal. In addition to the identical species already mentioned as occurring in Japan or the East Indies, the list includes species of the following genera: Promyllantor , Polyipnus , Macrorham- phosus , Ichthyocampus , Pegasus, Polymixia, Antigonia , Stethopristes, Cyttomimus , Aracana , Txnianotus, Bembradium, Idoplichthys, Bembrops, Chrionema, Pteropsa- ron , Champsodon, Draconetta , A teleopus, Poecilopsetta , Teeniopsetta, Samariscus , Anticitharus, Ghascanopsetta, and Ghaunax , all of which have close relatives in Japan, the South Seas, or the Bay of Bengal, but are quite unrepresented along the eastern shores of the Pacific. Even the more characteristically bathybial forms, such as the macrurids, indicate a similar relation, as is shown by the presence of Gadomus , Melanobranchus, Optonurus , Iiyrn enocephalus, Malacocephalus , and Tra-. chonurus. Among the above-named genera, Polymixia , Antigonia, Gadomus , Mel- anobranchus, Hymenocephalus, and Malacocephalus have close representatives in the eastern Atlantic as well as in the western Pacific, a fact of some interest when con- sidered in connection with the known distribution of many shore forms of Japan and the South Seas, which are unrepresented along the Pacific coast of America, but are present either as identical or as closely related species in the Mediterranean and neighboring waters.

In this paper are included all the fishes obtained with the dredge, trawl, or tan- gles, and also the scopelids among those taken at the surface. Other pelagic forms from the surface are reserved for a subsequent paper.

Family SCYUIORHINIDA.

Catulus spongiceps, new species.

Type, adult female, 50 cm. long, from station 4151, vicinity of Bird Island, depth 313 to 800 fathoms; type, No. 51590, U. S. Nat. Mus.

Length of head, exclusive of branchial area, 22 hundredths of total length; horizontal diameter of eye 3; preocular length of snout 11.5; preoral length of snout 8.5; greatest width of head 15; interocu- lar width 10.5; length of spiracle 1, slightly exceeding its distance from eye; least distance between nostrils 4.5; length of nostril 3.5; extreme width of mouth 12.5; width of attachment of pectorals 8.5; length of anterior pectoral margin 11.5; distance between pectorals and ventrals 11.5; base of ventrals 10; distance between ventrals and front of anal 3.5; base of anal 15; base of dorsals?; distance between dorsals 10.5; length of caudal measured below, 29.

Body compressed and deep, its greatest width about f its greatest depth; head depressed, the snout flat and rather broad; snout very soft and spongy, everywhere porous, the most conspicuous pores arranged in a pair of narrowly lanceolate patches on lower side of snout, each patch containing 2 series of pores in its posterior portion and 3 anteriorly; length of the patch equal to internarial width; nasal valves widely separated, the anterior and posterior terminating in thickened rounded lobes, and bearing no cirrus; spiracles behind eye and a little below its longitudinal axis; front of upper jaw well in advance of eye, its angle slightly in advance of vertical from hinder margin of orbit; a thick fold at angle of mouth continued on lower jaw half the distance to symphysis, and along upper jaw three-fourths as far; teeth typically with 5 cusps, but sometimes with either 4 or 3; lateral cusps better developed in the lower jaw than in the upper, and stronger on the sides than in the middle of each jaw; 18 oblique rows in each side of upper jaw.

580

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION.

Dorsal fins of equal length and height, separated by an interval 1.5 times their length at base, which equals half the width of the mouth; anterior dorsal inserted largely above base of ventrals, not more than one-fourth its base being behind them; second dorsal originating above middle of anal fin and terminating slightly in advance of its end; base of anal fin 2.3 times that of second dorsal, and 4 times its distance from base of ventrals; pectoral with a long base, the length of which equals its dis- tance from base of ventral; pectoral short, rounded, its tip scarcely reaching half way to base of ventrals.

Skin densely covered with minute slender spines, which bear no cusps at their bases; margins of fins and an area behind each of them naked.

Color uniform warm brown.

Only the type is known, an adult female containing a mature egg in each oviduct.

Family SQUALID^.

Squalus mitsukurii Jordan & Snyder.

Station 4085, north coast of Maui, 267 to 283 fathoms.

Etmopterus villosus, new species. Plate 66.

Type, 170 mm. long, from station 3824, off the' south coast of Molokai, depth 222 to 498 fathoms; type, No. 51583, U. S. Nat. Mus.

Length of head to first gill-cleft 22.5 hundredths of total length; interorbital width 8; preoral length of snout 11; preocular length of snout 8; least distance between nostrils 4; longitudinal diameter of orbit 7; distance between spiracles 7.5; width of mouth 11; distance from tip of snout to first dorsal spine 38; length of first dorsal spine 5; base of first dorsal 6; space between dorsals 16; length of second dorsal spine 8; base of second dorsal 6; length of upper caudal lobe 24; length of pectoral 10.

Lateral margins of snout nearly parallel, the terminal portion very abruptly and bluntly rounded ; width of snout equal to that of interorbital space; anterior nasal flap narrow and pointed, the posterior widened horizontally and concave on its anterior face; longitudinal diameter of eye slightly exceeding half interorbital width ; spiracle a short transverse slit, its length one-fifth the interval between spiracles ; mouth wide, little arched, the extreme width equaling preoral length of snout; fold at angle of mouth well developed and continued for a short distance along both jaws, its length from angle of mouth equaling to f preoral length of snout; upper teeth in 27 transverse rows, most of' the teeth functioning at the same time; each tooth with a central point and a pair of shorter lateral cusps; but one functional series of 29 teeth in mandible, forming an almost complete cutting edge, the single point of each tooth directed nearly horizontally away from the' middle line.

Insertion of anterior dorsal spine midway between tip of snout and base of upper caudal lobe, and slightly nearer to second spine than to the line joining the spiracles;' length of the first spine nearly equal to base of fin; interspace between dorsals equals distance from tip of snout to spiracles.

Skin thickly beset with small plates, which bear each a slender spine; along the back, and especially on the tail, these prickles are arranged in lengthwise series; fins largely smooth, with patches of prickles on their basal portions only; small areas immediately behind dorsal, pectoral, and ventral fins naked; lips and buccal groove, nostrils, spiracles, and eye naked, head otherwise uniformly covered.

Color warm brown; lower side of head, breast, and abdomen purplish black; dorsals black on basal and anterior portions, broadly white otherwise; caudal lobes black, the intermediate portion light-margined ; pectorals and ventrals dusky with white posterior edges.

Only the type known.

Centroscyllium ruscosum, new species. Fig. 230.

Type, 222 mm. long, from station 3997, vicinity of Kauai, depth 418 to 429 fathoms; type, No. 51585, U. S. Nat. Mus.

Length of head, exclusive of branchial area, 22 hundredths of total length; width of snout 12, slightly exceeding interorbital width; preoral length of snout 10, preocular length of snout 7; longitu- dinal diameter of eye 6.5; width of mouth 11; distance between spiracles 9; least distance between

FISHES OF HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.

581

nostrils 5; distance from tip of snout to first dorsal spine 36; length of first dorsal spine 5; base of first dorsal 6; distance between dorsals 17; length of second dorsal spine 8; base of second dorsal 7; length of upper caudal lobe 25.

Width of snout slightly more than half length of head measured to first gill-cleft; anterior nostrils opening in the anterolateral margins of snout, large, round, directed forward; anterior nasal valve broad and triangular, completely overlapping posterior valve, which is horizontally expanded and somewhat intricately folded; distance between inner angles of posterior nasal slits half the length